Investigating the effects of hot isostatic pressure heat treatment on mechanical properties of PLA based BCC lattices

Hamdi Kuleyin, Altug Usun, Recep Gumruk

Abstract


Lattice structures that have body-centered cubic (BCC) unit cells were manufactured in this study using fused deposition modeling with polylactic acid (PLA) as printing material. Obtained cellular structures were heat-treated utilizing the hot isostatic pressure (HIP) method. Isostatic pressure was applied with nitrogen gas in an autoclave under different temperatures. Effects of the heat treatment were investigated using compression tests. Heat treatment applied below the glass transition temperature was deformed under a higher load and higher energy absorption capability compared to as-built ones. Heat-treated below the glass transition temperature sample absorbed approximately 5% higher energy than the as-built sample. Heat treatment above the glass transition temperature showed a reduced energy absorption capacity of approximately 56%, especially at the temperature of 75°C. The heat treatment under isostatic pressure can be used as a post-processing method to control the deformation behavior and energy absorption capacity of lattice structures produced by the fused-deposition method.


Keywords


Additive Manufacturing; Cellular Structures; Fused Deposition Modeling; Mechanical Properties

Full Text:

PDF

References


B. Jenett, S. Calisch, D. Cellucci, N. Cramer, N. Gershenfeld, S. Swei, K.C. Cheung, “Digital Morphing Wing: Active Wing Shaping Concept Using Composite Lattice-Based Cellular Structure”s, Soft Robot. 4 (2017) 33–48.

doi.org/10.1089/soro.2016.0032

O. Der, A. A. Alqahtani, M. Marengo, and V. Bertola, “Characterization of polypropylene pulsating heat stripes: Effects of orientation, heat transfer fluid, and loop geometry,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 184, no. September 2020, p. 116304, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.116304.

C. Pan, Y. Han, J. Lu, “Design and Optimization of Lattice Structures : A Review,” Appl. Sci. 10 (2020) 6374. doi.org/10.3390/app10186374

D. Bhate, “Four questions in cellular material design”, Materials (Basel). 12 (2019). doi.org/10.3390/ma12071060

W. Tao, M.C. Leu, “Design of lattice structure for additive manufacturing”, Int. Symp. Flex. Autom. (2016) 325–332. doi.org/10.1109/ISFA.2016.7790182

T. Tancogne-Dejean, A.B. Spierings, D. Mohr, “Additively-manufactured metallic micro-lattice materials for high specific energy absorption under static and dynamic loading”, Acta Mater. 116 (2016) 14–28.

doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2016.05.054

Z. Ozdemir, E. Hernandez-Nava, A. Tyas, J.A. Warren, S.D. Fay, R. Goodall, I. Todd, H. Askes, “Energy absorption in lattice structures in dynamics: Experiments”, Int. J. Impact Eng. 89 (2016) 49–61. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2015.10.007

A.M. Vilardell, A. Takezawa, A. du Plessis, N. Takata, P. Krakhmalev, M. Kobashi, I. Yadroitsava, I. Yadroitsev, “Topology optimization and characterization of Ti6Al4V ELI cellular lattice structures by laser powder bed fusion for biomedical applications”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 766 (2019) 138330. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138330

P.F. Egan, I. Bauer, K. Shea, S.J. Ferguson, “Integrative design, build, test approach for biomedical devices with lattice structures”, Proc. ASME Des. Eng. Tech. Conf. 7 (2018) 1–9. doi.org/10.1115/DETC2018-85355

D. Downing, M. Leary, M. McMillan, A. Alghamdi, M. Brandt, “Heat transfer in lattice structures during metal additive manufacturing: numerical exploration of temperature field evolution”, Rapid Prototyp. J. 26 (2020) 911–928. doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-11-2018-0288

M. Pelanconi, M. Barbato, S. Zavattoni, G.L. Vignoles, A. Ortona, “Thermal design, optimization and additive manufacturing of ceramic regular structures to maximize the radiative heat transfer”, Mater. Des. 163 (2019) 107539. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.107539

J. Zhao, M. Zhang, Y. Zhu, X. Li, L. Wang, C. Hu, “Concurrent optimization of additive manufacturing fabricated lattice structures for natural frequencies”, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 163 (2019). 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2019.105153

W. Elmadih, W.P. Syam, I. Maskery, D. Chronopoulos, R. Leach, “Mechanical vibration bandgaps in surface-based lattices”, Addit. Manuf. 25 (2019) 421–429. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.11.011

R. Gümrük, A. Usun, “Investigation of the Effects of Discontinuities on the Mechanical Properties of Micro Lattice Structures”, J. Investig. Eng. Technol. 3 (2020) 58–67.

R. Gümrük, A. Usun, “Investigation of mechanical properties of electroless nickel plated micro-lattice structures”, J. Fac. Eng. Archit. Gazi Univ. 35 (2020) 1783–1798. doi.org/10.17341/gazimmfd.586438

R. Gümrük, R.A.W. Mines, “Compressive behaviour of stainless steel micro-lattice structures”, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 68 (2013) 125–139. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2013.01.006

A. Cerardi, M. Caneri, R. Meneghello, G. Concheri, M. Ricotta, “Mechanical characterization of polyamide cellular structures fabricated using selective laser sintering technologies”, Mater. Des. 46 (2013) 910–915.

doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.11.042

G. Dong, G. Wijaya, Y. Tang, Y.F. Zhao, “Optimizing process parameters of fused deposition modeling by Taguchi method for the fabrication of lattice structures”, Addit. Manuf. 19 (2018) 62–72. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2017.11.004

V. Shanmugam et al., “Fatigue behaviour of FDM-3D printed polymers, polymeric composites and architected cellular materials,” Int. J. Fatigue, vol. 143, no. October 2020, p. 106007, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.106007.

O. Iyibilgin, C. Yigit, M.C. Leu, “Experimental investigation of different cellular lattice structures manufactured by fused deposition modeling”, 24th Int. SFF Symp. - An Addit. Manuf. Conf.. (2013) 895–907.

M.R. Karamooz Ravari, M. Kadkhodaei, M. Badrossamay, R. Rezaei, Numerical investigation on mechanical properties of cellular lattice structures fabricated by fused deposition modeling, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 88 (2014) 154–161. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.08.009


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Selcuk University Journal of Engineering Sciences (SUJES) ISSN:2757-8828

Abstracting and indexing

Index Copernicus International

scholar_logo_64dp.png

Selcuk university journal of engineering sciences (Online)

ICI World of Journals

ResearchBib

Eurasian Scientific Journal Index